Signs of Child Sexual Abuse

Signs of Child Sexual Abuse

 

Child sexual abuse is the exploitation of a child for the gratification or profit of an adult. Sexual abuse can range from exhibitionism and fondling to intercourse or use of a child in the production of pornographic materials. Sexual abuse also may result in physical injury or be accompanied by other signs of abuse or neglect. Sexual abuse generally is perpetrated by someone known to the child and frequently continues over a prolonged period of time. Often it does not involve sexual intercourse or physical force. The incidence is estimated at 100,000 to 250,000 cases per year; however this type of abuse is difficult to detect and confirm.

 

 

PHYSICAL SIGNS

 

Any of the following physical signs may indicate abuse:

  • Difficulty in walking or sitting
  • Thickening and/or hyperpigmentation of the labial skin (especially when it resolves during out-of-home placement)
  • Horizontal diameter of vaginal opening that exceeds 4mm in prepubescent girls
  • Torn, stained, or bloody underclothing
  • Bruises or bleeding of the genitalia, perineum, or perianal area
  • Vaginal discharge and/or pruritus
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Gonococcal infection – Pharynx, Urethra, Rectum, Vagina
  • Syphilis
  • Genital herpes
  • Trichomonas
  • Chlamydial infection when resent beyond first six months of life (may be present at birth up to 6 months)
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Nonspecific vaginitis
  • Candidiasis
  • Pregnancy
  • Sperm or acid phosphatase on body or clothes; sperm in the urine of a female child
  • Lax rectal tone

 

BEHAVIORAL SIGNS

 

Children may display a wide range of psychological reactions to sexual abuse. Reactions depend on the age of the child, emotional maturity, nature of the incident, duration of sexual abuse, and the child’s relationship to the offender. The child may:

  • Confide in a relative, friend, or teacher; the disclosure may either be overt or subtle and indirect
  • Become withdrawn and daydream excessively
  • Evidence poor peer relationships
  • Experience poor self-esteem
  • Seem frightened or phobic, especially of adults
  • Experience distortion of body image
  • Express general feelings of shame or guilt
  • Exhibit a sudden deterioration in academic performance
  • Show pseudomature personality development
  • Attempt suicide
  • Exhibit a positive relationship toward the offender
  • Display regressive behavior
  • Display enuresis (wetting self) and/or encopresis (soiling self)
  • Engage in excessive masturbation
  • Engage in highly sexualized play
  • Become sexually promiscuous
  • Have a sexually abused sibling.

MICR- Michigan Incident Crime Reporting for Criminal Sexual Conduct, 2007 (Genesee County)

MICRMichigan Incident Crime Reporting 2007 (Genesee County)

First Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct involves penetration. According to Michigan law, penetration includes vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse or putting a finger or other object into another person’s anal or genital opening. Emission of semen is not required.

First Degree Sexual Criminal Conduct includes penetration and any one of the following circumstances:
1. Victim is under 13 years of age.
2. Victim is 13, 14, or 15 and assailant is any of the following:

a. Member of the household.
b. Related by blood or affinity.
c. In a position of authority over the victim.
d. A teacher, substitute teacher or an administrator of a school at which the victim is enrolled.

3. Another felony is committed during the assault.
4. Multiple assailants and either of the following:

a. Victim is mentally incapable, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless.
b. Force or coercion is used. Force of coercion includes violence, coercing victim to submit by threatening retaliation, overcoming victim through concealment or surprise, or assailant engages in medical treatment or examination of the victim.

5. Assailant is armed with a weapon or any object believed to be a weapon.
6. Assailant causes personal injury and force or coercion is used.

7. Assailant causes personal injury and victim is mentally incapable, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless.

8. Victim is mentally incapable, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless and the assailant is any of the following:

a. Related by blood or affinity.
b. In a position of authority over the victim.

CSC 1st is a felony punishable by up to life in prison and additional penalties and monitoring.

Sexual Penetration Penis/Vagina CSC 1st 117 reported
Sexual Penetration Oral/Anal CSC 1st- 62 reported
Sexual Penetration Object CSC 1st 29 reported

Second Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct involves contact. According to Michigan Law, sexual contact is defined as the intentional touching of the victim’s or actor’s intimate parts or the clothing covering those intimate parts for the purpose of sexual arousal or gratification, done for sexual purpose or in a sexual manner.

Second Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct includes sexual conduct and any one of the following circumstances:
1. Victim is under 13 years of age.
2. Victim is 13, 14, 15 and assailant is any of the following:

a. Member of the household.
b. Related by blood or affinity.
c. In a position of authority over the victim.
d. A teacher, substitute teacher or an administrator of a school at which the victim is enrolled.

3. Another felony is committed during the assault.
4. Multiple assailants and either of the following:

a. Victim is mentally incapable, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless.
b. Force or coercion is used. Force of coercion includes violence, coercing victim to submit by threatening retaliation, overcoming victim through concealment or surprise, or assailant engages in medical treatment or examination of the victim.

5. Assailant is armed with a weapon or any object believed to be a weapon.

6. Assailant causes personal injury and force or coercion is used.

7. Assailant causes personal injury and victim is mentally incapable, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless.

8. Victim is mentally incapable, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless and the assailant is any of the following:

a. Related by blood or affinity.
b. In a position of authority over the victim.

CSC 2nd is a felony punishable by up to 15 years in prison.

Sexual Contact Forcible CSC 2- 118 reported

Third Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct includes penetration and any of the one following circumstances:

1. Victim is 13, 14, 15.

2. Force or Coercion is used.

3. Victim is mentally incapable, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless.

4. Assailant is related by blood or affinity.

5. The victim is at least 16 years of age, unmarried and not emancipated, and a student at a public or nonpublic school, and the assailant is a teacher, substitute teacher, or administrator of that school.

CSC 3 is a felony punishable by up to 15 years in prison.
Sexual penetration penis/vagina CSC 3rd- 46 reported
Sexual Penetration oralianal CSC 3rd – 19 reported
Sexual Penetration Object CSC 3rd 4 reported

Forth Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct includes sexual contact and any one of the following circumstances:

1. Victim is 13, 14, or 15 and assailant is 5 or more years older than victim.

2. Force or coercion is used to accomplish the contact.

3. Assailant knows or has reason to know that the victim is mentally incapable, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless.

4. Assailant is related by blood or affinity.

5. Assailant is a mental health professional and sexual contact occurs during or within 2 years after the period in which the victim was a client or patient.

6. Victim is a least 16 or 17 years of age and a student at a public or nonpublic school, and the assailant is a teacher, substitute teacher, or administrator of that school.

Criminal Sexual Conduct in the fourth degree is a misdemeanor punishable by up to 2 years in prison or a fine of up to $500 or both.

Sexual Contact Forcible CSC 4- 117 reported

Other Sexual Offenses- 111 reported